There has been an explosion of new genetic, biochemical, and cell biologic techniques. Appropriate systems biology tools are needed to facilitate integration of genotyping information, mRNA expression, microRNA expression, promoter analysis, proteome expression, and metabolome profiles in order to identify key biological processes and their interactions. In addition to better computational tools, a deeper understanding ...more »
Translation of the knowledge of the molecular consequences of diabetes to effective therapies requires better measures of disease progression, faithful models of the molecular and cellular pathology, and application of cutting-edge technologies. Validated biomarkers and surrogate end points will allow rapid screening of clinical interventions prior to larger clinical trials, and can assess risk factors and treatment adequacy ...more »
One explanation for the discordant response of agents that treat complications in rodents versus humans is that deleterious pathways that are responsive to a certain drug may be widely expressed in inbred animal models, but expressed in only a small number of individuals. Should some agents be tested in primates or some other larger mammal? Pharmacogenomic, pharmacometabolomic, and pharmacoproteomic approaches could ...more »
The value of currently available urine biomarkers that identify those at risk for diabetic nephropathy is increasingly called into question. The development of new urine and plasma biomarkers to predict diabetic nephropathy may shed light on disease mechanisms. Also, rational clinical trial design will be made possible by such markers.